Effect of Sesamum indicum L. Seed oil Supplementation on Hepatic and Renal Mineral Concentrations of Hypercholesterolemic Rats
American Journal of Life Sciences
Volume 2, Issue 5, October 2014, Pages: 308-311
Received: Oct. 16, 2014;
Accepted: Oct. 27, 2014;
Published: Oct. 30, 2014
Views 2674 Downloads 131
Ajayi Olubunmi Bolanle, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria
Malachi Oluwaseyi Israel, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria
Twenty four male rats weighing between 120-130g were randomly assigned into four groups. Group A was fed normal diet; Group B, C and D were fed hypercholesterolemic diet (i.e. 20% fat + 1% cholesterol) for two weeks to establish hypercholesterolemia. Thereafter, Group B were maintained on hyper diet, while C and D were fed 5% and 10% Sesamum indicum seed oil supplemented diet for four weeks. The liver and kidney were removed, dried and powdered. The concentrations of iron, zinc, cobalt, manganese, calcium, potassium, magnesium, potassium and sodium were analyzed in both liver and kidney samples with the use of Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. Hypercholesterolemia reduced both the hepatic and renal concentrations of sodium, potassium, Phosphorus, magnesium and calcium but reduced the hepatic and not the renal concentrations of manganese and zinc. Supplementation with 5% but not 10% Sesamum indicum seed oil reversed the effects and restored the reduced ions concentrations. The hepatic and renal concentrations of Iron and Cobalt ions were not affected by hypercholesterolemia nor by supplementation with Sesamum indicum seed oil.
Ajayi Olubunmi Bolanle,
Malachi Oluwaseyi Israel,
Effect of Sesamum indicum L. Seed oil Supplementation on Hepatic and Renal Mineral Concentrations of Hypercholesterolemic Rats, American Journal of Life Sciences.
Vol. 2, No. 5,
2014, pp. 308-311.
Arundhati B., Pubali D. and Santinath G. (2010). Antihyperlipidemic Effect of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) Protein Isolate in Rats Fed a Normal and High Cholesterol Diet. J. Fd. Sc. 75(9): 274-279.
Namiki, M. (2007). “Nutraceutical functions of sesame: a review,” Crit. Rev.Fd.Sc.and Nutr. 47(7) pp. 651-673.
Deshpande S. S., Deshpande S. U. and Salunkhe D. K. (1996). Sesame oil. In: Hui YH, editor. Bailey’s Industrial Oil & fat Products. New York: A Wiley-Interscience Publication. Vol 2. pp 457–459.
Kapoor, L.D. (2001). Hand Book of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants, CRC Press, New York, NY, USA, 2001.
Gauthaman K. and Saleem T.S.M. (2009). “Nutraceutical value of sesame oil,” Pharmacognosy Rev. 3 (6): 264-269.
Abou-Gharbia, H. A., Shahidi, F., Shehata, A. A. Y. and Youssef, M. M. (1997). Effects of processing on oxidative stability of sesame oil extracted from intact and dehulled seeds. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 74(3): 215.
Roma, R. B., Tabekhia, M. M. and Williams, J. D. (1979), “Phytate and oxalate contents in sesame seed (Sesamum indicum L.),” Nutr. Rep. Int. 20(1) pp. 25–31.
Ajayi, O. B., Braimoh, J. and Olasunkanmi, K. (2012). Response of Hypercholesterolemic Rats to Sesamum indicum Linn Seed Oil Supplemented Diet. J. Life Sc. 6: 1214-1219.
Sedigheh A, Mahmoud R. K., Somayeh N., Esfandiar H., and Amirhossein S. (2013). Antihyperlipidemic Effects of Sesamumindicum L in Rabbits Fed a High-Fat Diet. Hindawi Publishing Corporation. The Scientific World Journal Volume 2013, Article ID 365892, http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/365892.
Levenson J. W., Skerrett P. J. and Gaziano J. M. (2002). Reducing the global burden of cardiovascular disease: the role of risk factors. Prev. Cardiol. 5(4): 188-99.
Lloyd-Jones D., Adams R. J., Brown T. M. (2010). “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2010 update: a report from the “American Heart Association,” Circulation. 121(7): 948–954.
Joshi, S.C. (2005). “Plant and plant products used as hypolipidaemic/antiatherosclerotic agents: an overview,” Proceeding of Zoological society of India, Vol. 4, pp. 27-33.
Souza TD, Mengi SA, Hassarajani S, Chattopadhayay S (2007) “Efficacy study of the bioactive fraction (F-of Acorus calamus in hyperlipidemia,” Indian Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 196–200.
World Health Organization (2014). Raised Cholesterol. Global Health Observatory –risk factors. http://www.who.int/gho/ncd/risk_factors/cholesterol_text/en/ (Assesed on: 6/10/2014).
Steinberg D. (2002). Atherogenesis in perspective: hypercholesterolemia and inflammation as partners in crime. Nat. Med; 8: 1211–1217.
Nelson D. L. and Cox M. M. (2000). "Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry" 3rd Ed. Worth Publishing: New York. pp. 1200.
McDowell L. E. (2003). Minerals in animal and human nutrition. 2nd ed. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science: 1-630.
Stryer L. (1995). Biochemistry. 4th edition. New York: W. H. Freeman. ISBN 0716720094.
Tolle H. G., Manz F., Diekmann L., Kalhoff H. and Stock G. J. (1991). Effect of renal net acid excretion of various mineral contents in the three lots a common pre-term formula. J Trace Electrolytes Health Dis. 5(4):235-238.
Magda S. M., Madiha M. A. and Seham S. K. (2011). Effect of dietary garlic and onion on liver and tibial mineral concentration in omega-3 fatty acid rich oil fed rats. Agric. Biol. Am. 2(5): 745-751.
Poulsen, R. C., Moughan, P. J. and Kruger, M. C. (2007). Long- chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and the regulation of bone metabolism. Exp Biol Med; 232: 1275– 88.
George, J. (2006). Mineral metabolism in dimethylnitrosamine-induced hepatic fibrosis. Clinical Biochemistry 39:984–991.
Dimeski G., Mollee P., Carter A. (2006). Effects of Hyperlipidemia on Plasma Sodium, Potassium, and Chloride Measurements by an Indirect Ion- Selective Electrode Measuring System.Clinical Chemistry 52, No. 1 pp 155-156.
Gross V., Flemming B., Roloff D. and Birkhahn H. J. (1982). [Carbohydrate tolerance and intracellular sodium concentration in rabbits with dietary hypercholesterolemia]. Dtsch Z Verdau Stoffwechselkr; 42(4):169-76.
Terry J. (1994). The major electrolytes: sodium, potassium, and chloride. J Intraven Nurs. 17(5):240-7.
Clausen, M. J. V. and Poulsen H. (2013). "Chapter 3 Sodium/Potassium Homeostasis in the Cell". In Banci, Lucia (Ed.). Metallomics and the Cell. Metal Ions in Life Sciences 12. Springer. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-5561-1_3. ISBN 978-94-007-5560-4. electronic-book ISBN 978-94-007-5561-1 ISSN 1559-0836 electronic-ISSN 1868-0402.
Pohl H. R., Wheeler J. S. and Murray H. E. (2013). "Chapter 2. Sodium and Potassium in Health and Disease". In Astrid Sigel, Helmut Sigel and Roland K. O. Sigel. Interrelations between Essential Metal Ions and Human Diseases. Metal Ions in Life Sciences 13. Springer. pp. 29–47.
Greenwood N. N. and Earnshaw A. (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd Edn.), Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 0-7506-3365-4.
Bernhardt, N. E. and Kasko, A. M. (2008). Nutrition for the Middle Aged and Elderly. Nova Publishers. p. 171. ISBN 1-60456-146-7.
Leroy J. (1926). "Necessite du magnesium pour la croissance de la souris". ComptesRendus de Seances de la Societe de Biologie 94: 431–433.
Lusk J.E., Williams R.J.P. and Kennedy E.P. (1968). "Magnesium and the growth of Escherichia coli". Journal of Biological Chemistry 243 (10): 2618–2624. PMID 4968384.
Marschner H. (1995). Mineral Nutrition in Higher Plants. San Diego: Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-473542-8.
Ko Y. H., Hong S. and Pedersen P. L. (1999). Chemical mechanism of ATP synthase. Magnesium plays a pivotal role in formation of the transition state where ATP is synthesized from ADP and inorganic phosphate. J Biol Chem. 274(41):28853-6.
Brini, M., Ottolini, D., Calì, T. and Carafoli, E. (2013). Calcium in Health and Disease". In:Interrelations between Essential Metal Ions and Human Diseases, Metal Ions in Life SciencesAstrid Sigel, Helmut Sigel and Roland K. O. Sigel.eds. 13. Springer. pp. 81–137.
Brini M., Call T., Ottolini D. and Carafoli E. (2013). "Intracellular Calcium Homeostasis and Signaling". In Banci, Lucia (Ed.). Metallomics and the Cell. Metal Ions in Life Sciences 12. Springer.
Schauss A. G. (1996). Minerals, Trace Elements and Human Health. Life Sciences Press: Tacoma (WA).