Toxicity, Anti-Lipid Peroxidation, Invitro and Invivo Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity of Annona Muricata Ethanol Stem Bark Extract
American Journal of Life Sciences
Volume 2, Issue 5, October 2014, Pages: 271-277
Received: Oct. 6, 2014; Accepted: Oct. 15, 2014; Published: Oct. 30, 2014
Views 3276      Downloads 232
Sanni Olakunle, Department of Biochemistry, Kogi State University, Anyigba, Nigeria
Obidoa Onyechi, Department of Biochemistry, Kogi State University, Anyigba, Nigeria
Omale James, Department of Biochemistry, Kogi State University, Anyigba, Nigeria
Article Tools
Follow on us
The presence of natural antioxidant capacity in plants has been well documented world over. There is an increasing demand for natural antioxidant to replace synthetic additives in the food and pharmacologicals. The objective of this study is to evaluate the invivo antioxidant potential of ethanol extract of Annona muricata against CCl4- induced toxicity in rats as well as its invitro antioxidant effect and lipid peroxidation. The extract was prepared by cold maceration using absolute ethanol. The invitro antioxidant properties of the extract was determined using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhdrazyl) radical and invivo antioxidant enzymes were assayed to evaluate the biological activities of the extract. The polyphenol content of the extract was determined and it contained alkaloids, tannin, flavonoids, phenol in appreciable amount. In the invivo studies, the animals were grouped into three (3) groups of 15 rats each. Group 1 served as control and received 1ml/kg b.w of olive oil orally for 28 days. Group 2 rats were orally administered 1ml/kg CCl4 mixed with olive oil (1:10) daily for 28 days while group 3 rats were administered 1ml/kg CCl4 and 200 mg/kg b.w of Annona muricata stem extract. Three of the rats from each group were sacrificed on days 1, 8, 15, 22 and 28. The plant extract showed remarkable hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced oxidative stress as revealed from serum enzyme markers. CCl4 induced a significant rise (p<0.001) in aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and MDA (malondialdehyde) level in the serum with a reduction in catalase activity. Treatment of rats with the plant extract (200mg/kg b.w) significantly altered both serum enzymes activities and oxidant levels to near normal against CCl4 – treated rats. The invivo and invitro rapid radical scavenging studies were positive for the stem bark extract. This study suggests that the possible mechanism of the exhibited biological activities of the extract may be due to free radical scavenging owing to the presence of polyphenols in the extract. The plant extract possesses, antioxidant, anti-lipid peroxidation effect and is hepatoprotective. These may be the rationale for its folkloric uses and pharmacological effects.
Annona muricata, Antioxidant, DPPH (2,2-Diphenyl-1-Picrylhydrazyl), Wistar Rats, Invitro And Invivo
To cite this article
Sanni Olakunle, Obidoa Onyechi, Omale James, Toxicity, Anti-Lipid Peroxidation, Invitro and Invivo Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity of Annona Muricata Ethanol Stem Bark Extract, American Journal of Life Sciences. Vol. 2, No. 5, 2014, pp. 271-277. doi: 10.11648/j.ajls.20140205.14
A.O.A.C. (1999). Official method of analysis, 13th Edition, Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington D.C. 1 – 30.
Adesegun, S.A., Elechi, N.A., Coker, H.A. (2008). Antioxidant activities of methanol extract of Sapium elliticum. Pakistan Journal of Biological Science. 11: 453-457.
Agil, F., Ahmad, I., Mehmood, Z. (2006). Antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties of twelve traditionally used Indian medicinal plants. Turkish Journal of Biology. 30(3): 177-183.
Arteel, G.E. (2003). Oxidants and antioxidant in alcohol induced liver disease. Gastroenterol. 124, 778-790.
Baker, J.T., Boris, R.P., Carte, B. (1995). Natural product drug discovery and development. New perspective on international collaboration. J. of Nat. Prod. 58: 1325-1357.
Bakirel, T., Bakirel, U., Keles, O.U., Ulgen, S.G., Yardibi, H. (2008). Invivo assessment of anti-diabetic and antioxidant activities of rosemary (Rosmarius officialis) in alloxan- induced diabetic rabbits. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 116(1): 64-73.
Bolton, J.L., Trush, M.A., Penning, T.M., Dryhurst, G., Monks, T.J. (2000). Role of quinines in toxicology. Chem. Res. Toxicol. 13, 135-160.
Botsoglou, N.A., Fletouris, D.J., Papageougiou, G.E., Vassilopoulous, U.N., Mantisa, A.J., Trakatellis, A.G. (1994). Rapid, sensitive and specific thiobarbiturio acid method for measuring lipid peroxidation in animal tissue, food and feedstuff samples. Agric. Food. Chem. 42: 1931-37.
Bouayed, J., Bohn, T. (2010). Exogenous antioxidants – double-edged swords in cellular redox state: Health beneficial effects at physiologic doses versus deleterious effects at high doses. Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity. 3(4): 228-237.
Buyukokuroglu, M.E., Gulcin, I., Oktay, M., Kufrevioglu, O.I. (2001). “Invitro antioxidant properties of dantrolene sodium” Pharmacological Research 44(6): 491-494.
Das, S., Pal, S., Mujib, A., Dey, S. (1999). Biotechnology of medicinal plants, recent advances and potentials. 1st Edition Vol. II UK 992 Publications. Hyderabad, 126-139.
Dhalwal, K., Shinde, V.M., Namdeo, A.G., Mahadik, K.R. (2008). Antioxidant profile and HPTLC densitometric analysis of Umbelliferone and Psoralen in Aegle Marmelos. Pharm. Biol. 46: 266-272.
DHHS (1985). Guide for the care and use of Laboratory Animals, Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources Commission on Life Sciences, National Research Council, National Academy Press, Washington, DC, USA.
Diplock, A.T., Charleux, J.L., Crozier, G., (1998). Functional food science and defense against reactive oxidative. British Journal of Nutrition. 80(1): S 77 – S 112.
Friedman, N., Young, D.S. (1997). Disease and clinical laboratory tests. 30th Edition, AACC Press, London. 400 Pp.
Guidi, I., Galimberti, D., Lonati, S., Novembrino, C., Bamonti, F., Tiriticco, M., Fenoglio, C., Venturelli, E., Baron, P., Bresolin, N. (2006). Oxidative imbalance in patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease. Neurobiol. Aging. 27, 262-269.
Harrison, M.B., Rhett, D. (2005). Figs and the diversity of tropical rainforest. Biosciences. 55(12): 1052-1064.
Hyun, D.H., Hernandez, J.O., Mattson, M.P., Decabo, R. (2006). The plasma membrane redox system in aging. Aging Res. Rev. 5, 209-220.
Ingh, U., Jialal, I. (2006). Oxidative stress and atherosclerosis. Pathophysiology. 13, 129-142.
Jacob, R.A. (1995). Antioxidants, clinical nutrition insight. Advanced Nutrition, 1998.
Kinnula, V.L., Crapo, J.D. (2004). Superoxide dismutases in malignant cells and human tumors. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 36, 718-744.
Kohen, R., Nyska, A. (2002). Oxidation of biological systems: oxidative stress phenomena, antioxidants, redox reactions and methods for their quantification. Toxicologic Pathology. 30(6): 620-650.
Marjorie, C. (1996). Plant products as antimicrobial agents. Clinical Microbiology Review. 12: 564-582.
Mosquera, M.O., Correa, Y.M., Buitrago, D.C. and Nino, J. (2007). Antioxidant activity of twenty five plants from Colombian biodiversity. Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz. 102(5): 631-634.
Nabsree, D., Bratati, D. (2007). Antioxidant activity of some leafy vegetables of India: A comparative study. Food Chemistry. 1: 471-474.
Naik, G.H., Priyadarsini, K.L., Satav, J.G. (2003). Comparative antioxidant activity of individual herbal components used in ayurvedic medicine. Phytochemistry. 63(1): 97-104.
Niedernhofer, L.J., Daniels, J.S., Rouzer, C.A., Greene, R.E., Marnet, L.J. (2003). Malondialdehyde, a product of lipid peroxidation, is mutagenic in human cells. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278(33): 31426-31433.
Okwu, D.E. (2004). Phytochemicals and vitamin content of indigenous species Southeastern Nigeria. J. sustainable Agriculture and Environment. 6(1): 30-37.
Patel, R.V., Patel, P.R., Kajal, S.S. (2010). “Antioxidant activity of some selected medicinal plants in western region of India”. Advances in Biological Research. 4: 23-26.
Pham-Huy, L.A., He, H., Pham-Huy, C. (2008). Free Radicals, Antioxidants in disease and health. Int. J. Biomed. Science 4(2): 89-96.
Ramakrishma, B.S., Varghese, R., Jayakumar, S., Mathan, M., Balasubramanian, K.A. (1997). Circulating antioxidant in ulcerative colitis and their relationship to disease severity and activity. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 12, 490-494.
Rosalki, S.B., Foo, A., Burlina, A. (1993). Multicentre evaluation of Iso ALP testkit for measurement of bone alkaline phosphatase activity in serum and plasma. Clinical Chemistry, 39: 648-652.
Sajeesh, T., Arunachalam, K., Parimelazhagan, T. (2011). Antioxidant and antipyretic studies on Pothos scandens L. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine. 4(11): 889-899.
Sas, K., Robotka, H., Toldi, J., Vecsi, L. (2007). Mitochondrial, metabolic disturbances, oxidative stress and kynurenine system, with focus on neurodegenerative disorders. J. Neurol. Sci. 257, 221-239.
Shahidi, F., Wanasundara, P.K. (1992). “Phenolic antioxidants” critical reviews in food science and nutrition, 32(1): 67-103.
Sharma, O.O., Bhat, T.K. (2009). DPPH antioxidant assay revisited. Food Chemistry. 113(4): 1202-1205.
Smith, M.A., Rothkamp, C.A., Nunomura, A., Raina, A.K., Perry, G. (2000). Oxidative in Alzheimer’s disease. Biochem. Biophys. Ada 1502, 139-144.
Stuffuess, M., Dauros, J. (1982). Current status of NCL plant and animal product programme. J. of Nat. Prod. 45, 1-14.
Thabrew, M., Joice, P. (1987). A comparative study of the efficacy of Pavetta indica and Osbeckia octanda in the treatment of liver dysfunction. Planta Medica. 53: 239-241.
Tietz, N. (1994). Textbook of Clinical Chemistry. 3rd Edition, W.B. Saunders Company, New York.
Trease, G.E., and Evans, W.C. (2002). Pharmacognosy, W.B. Saunders, London, UK, 15th Edition.
Upston, J.M., Kritharides, L., Stocker, R. (2003). The role of Vitamin E in atheroscherosis. Prog. Lipid Res. 42, 405-422.
Valko, M., Leibfritz, D., Moncol, J., Gronin, M.T.D., Mazur, M., Telser, J. (2007). Free radicals and antioxidants in normal physiological functions and human disease. International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology. 39(1): 44-84.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186