Effects of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilizer Levels on Growth and Development of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) at Bore District, Southern Oromia, Ethiopia
American Journal of Life Sciences
Volume 2, Issue 5, October 2014, Pages: 260-266
Received: Sep. 8, 2014;
Accepted: Sep. 22, 2014;
Published: Sep. 30, 2014
Views 3929 Downloads 947
Wakene Tigre, Yabello Pastoral and Dryland Agriculture Research Center, yabello, Ethiopia
Walelign Worku, Departement of Plant Science, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia
Wassie Haile, Departement of Soil Science, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia
Fertilizer requirement of crops vary from location to location owing to several factors. Thus there is a need to determine site specific fertilizer recommendation for specific crops. Accordingly, an experiment was conducted on the effects of different nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer levels on yield and yield components of barley at south eastern Oromia, Bore, in 2009 cropping season. The barley variety Biftu was used as test crop. It is a newly released variety from Sinana Agricultural Research Center. The experiment contained factorial combination of five levels of N (0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 Kg ha-1) and four levels of P (0, 23, 46 and 69 Kg ha-1) laid out in randomized complete block design with four replications. Application of N significantly prolonged number of days to heading and maturity and grain filling period. Number of fertile tillers, total biomass and straw yield were significantly increased by application of N. However, the effect of N on plant height and number of total tillers was not significant. On the other hand, P application significantly influenced all the parameters of growth and development. Contrary to N, increase in P significantly shortened number of days to heading and maturity and grain filling period. Number of fertile tillers was significantly increased by P application. The interaction effect of N and P was significant on days to heading and number of fertile tillers. Therefore, balanced amount of N and P is very essential for appropriate growth of barley.
Effects of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilizer Levels on Growth and Development of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) at Bore District, Southern Oromia, Ethiopia, American Journal of Life Sciences.
Vol. 2, No. 5,
2014, pp. 260-266.
Ahn PM (1993). Tropical soils and fertilizer use. Long man group, UK.
Alam MZ, SA Haider (2006). Growth attributes of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars in relation to different doses of nitrogen fertilizer. Journal of Life Earth Science. 1: 77-82.
Alcoz M, M Frank, V Haby (1993). Nitrogen fertilizer timing effect on wheat production, nitrogen uptake efficiency, and residual soil nitrogen. Agronomy Journal, 85: 1198-1203.
Anderson PM, EA Oelke, SR Simmons (2002). Growth and Development Guide for Spring Barley. University of Minnesota, USA.
Anonymous (1996). Small grain production. Ohio Agronomy guide, Bulletin 472 Ohio State University, USA.
Caldicott JJ AM Nuttall (1979). A method for the assessment of lodging in cereal crops. Journal of National and International Agriculture and Botany, 15: 88-91.
Chapman RC, LP Carter (1976). Crop production: principles and practices. Freeman Company, USA.
CLDB (Canada land development branch). 2001. Crop fertilization guide. New Nouveau Brunswick, Canada.
Damene Darota (2003). Yield Response of Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to applied Levels of N and P Fertilizers on Nitisol of Dawro Zone, Southwestern Ethiopia, M.Sc. thesis. Haramaya University, Haramaya.
Desta Beyene (1987). Effect of liming and N and P fertilizers on grain yield of barley. Ethiopian Journal of Agricultural Sciences (1): 1-13.
Edney MJ, KH Tipples (1997). Crop bulletin. ISSN 1182-4417, No 235. Grain Research Laboratory, Canadian grain comission, Canada.
Grando S, HG Macpherson (eds.) (2005). Food Barley: Importance, Uses and Local Knowledge. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Food Barley Improvement, 14-17 January 2002, Hammamet, Tunisia. ICARDA, Aleppo, Syria, x+156 pp. En.
Hailu G, Van Luer Joop (1996). Barley research in Ethiopia: Past work and future prospects. Proceedings of the first Barley Research Review workshop, 16-19 October 1993, Addis Ababa.
Havlin JL, JD Beaton, SL Tisdale, WL Nelson (1999). Soil fertility and fertilizers: An introduction to nutrient management. Prentice Hall, New York, 499p.
IAR (Institute of Agricultural Research) (1979). Cooperative program for Chencha. IAR/ADD progress report for 1975-1976. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
ICARDA (International Center for Agricultural Research in Dry Areas) (2008). Barley improvement production, Allepo, Syria
Maqsood M, M Akbar, N Yousaf, MT Mehmood, S Ahmad (1999). Effect of different rates of N, P and K combinations on Yield and components of Yield of wheat. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 1 (4): 359-361.
Mengel K, EA Kirkby (1987). Principles of Plant Nutrition. (4th Ed.). International potash institute, Bern, Switzerland.
Olsen SR, CV Cole, FS Watanabe, LA Dean (1954). Estimation of available phosphorus in soils by extraction with sodium bicarbonate. USA Circular. 939: 1- 19.
Ottman MJ (2009). Response of wheat and barley varieties to phosphorus fertilizer. University of Arizona, USA.
Prystupa P, G Slafer, A Savin (2004). Leaf appearance, tillering and their coordination in response to NxP fertilization in barley. Springer, Netherlands.
Rashid A, Khan UK, Khan DJ (2007). Comparative Effect of Varieties and Fertilizer Levels on Barley (Hordeum vulgare). ISSN Online: 1814–9596, Pakistan.
SAS Institute (2004). SAS User’s Guide, Statistics version 9 ed. SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA.
Shrivastava BK, MP Singh, SK Jain (1992). Effect of spacing and nitrogen levels on growth, yield and quality of seed crops of radish. Seed Res., 20: 85–7.
Taye Bekele, Yeshanew Ashagrie, Balesh Tulema, Girma Gebrekidan (1996). Soil fertility management in barely. In: Hailu and Joop van Leur (eds). Barely research in Ethiopia: past work and future prospects. Proceedings of the first barely research review workshop, 16-19 October 1993, Addis Ababa: IAR/ICARDA, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. pp. 92-99
Tilahun Geleto, Tanner DG, Tekalign Mamo, Getinet Gebeyehu (1996). Response of rain fed bread and durum wheat to source, level and timing of nitrogen fertilizer at two Vertisol sites in Ethiopia. pp. 127-147. In: The Ninth Regional Wheat Workshop for Eastern, Central and Southern Africa. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Westerman RL (1990). Soil Testing and Plant Analysis. (3 ED). Soil Science Society of America, Inc. Madison, Wisconsin, USA.
Woinshet Tariku (2007). Effect of nitrogen fertilizer levels on grain yield and malt quality of different malt barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) varieties in Shashemane woreda. MSc. thesis, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia.