Analysis of Questionnaires Surveys and Overviews On the Gaps of Past Research Causing Plant Disease and People Health Hazards in the Sundarbans
American Journal of Life Sciences
Volume 2, Issue 3, June 2014, Pages: 155-163
Received: May 20, 2014;
Accepted: Jun. 6, 2014;
Published: Jun. 20, 2014
Views 2937 Downloads 102
Awal, Mohd Abdul, Environmental Scientist (Ministry of Environment & Forest), and Founder & Chief Advisor, Health & Pollution Research Farm, Bangladesh, 23-09-37 Avenue, Apt, No: 1, Long Island City, New York, USA
Coastal belts render energy & operative support to people and natural resources (Awal, M.A.2007). But the Sundarbans is being contaminated by various environmental factors such as heavy metal contaminations in soil and water as well as people health (Awal, M.A. 2014). So, a questionnaire survey was conducted among different groups of people inside and outside of Sundarbans to explore local perceptions as to the possible causes of disease of plants in Sundarbans (Awal, M.A.2009). This confirmed the increase in top-dying prevalence. Despite various hypotheses as to the causes of this top-dying, the underlying causes are still not well understood. The present work has explored some of the possible factors involved, focussing particularly on the relationship among the amount of top-dying in different places and the human destruction of Sundarbans ecosystem as well as abnormal concentrations of a number of chemical elements present in the soil, in order to test the hypothesis that ecological pollution, along with chemical pollution might be responsible. Of the hypotheses previously put forward to explain top-dying, the present results do not support enhanced salinity as the cause. It is likely that several of the above-mentioned environmental factors interact with each other to induce top dying in Sundri (Awal, M.A. 2004). However, the present results have showed that Sn, Exchangeable K, soil pH, Pb, Zn and Ni could be directly linked with top-dying disease of Heritiera fomes (Sundri) in Sundarbans, probably particularly by weakening the vigour of the trees and people and allowing other factors such as pathological agents to attack the plants and surrounding people in Sundarbans, Bangladesh (Awal, 2014).
Awal, Mohd Abdul,
Analysis of Questionnaires Surveys and Overviews On the Gaps of Past Research Causing Plant Disease and People Health Hazards in the Sundarbans, American Journal of Life Sciences.
Vol. 2, No. 3,
2014, pp. 155-163.
ADB, 1992. Non-Wood forests Products. Project 372001/9; forest master Plan, Bangladesh. Asian development Bank, Manila, Philippines: 46-50.
Asian Development Bank, 1993-95. Main Plan-1993/2012. Vol.1. Forestry Master Plan. Asian Development Bank, Manila, Philippines.
Alam, M. K. 1990. Comments of top dying of Sundri trees. In: Rahman, M. A; Khandakar, K; Ahmed, F. U. and Ali, M.O. (eds). Proceedings of the seminar on top-dying of Sundri (Heritiera fomes) trees. Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council, Dhaka, Ban-gladesh, p.90.
Awal, M.A. (2007). Analysis of possible environmental factors causing top-dying in mangrove forest trees in the Sundarbans in Bangladesh. PhD thesis, University of Bradford;p:1-170.
Awal, M.A., Hale, W.H.G. & Stern, B. (2009). Trace element concentrations in mangrove sediments in the Sundarbans, Bangladesh. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 58(12), 1944-1948.
Awal, M.A. (2014). “Correlation between the chemical composition of the surface sediment and water in the mangrove forest of the Sundarbans, Bangladesh, and the regeneration, growth and dieback of the forest trees and people health”..Journal of Science Innovation; 2014. 2(2): pp.11-21.Science Publishing Group, USA; May 20th, 2014(2):11-21;doi: 10.11648/j/si.20140202.11.
Bakshi, B. K. 1954. Wilt disease of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb due to Fusarium solani Sensu Snyder and Hensen. Natural Nature 174: 278-291.
Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, 2006. Statistical Yearbook of Bangladesh, Statistics Division. Ministry of Planning. Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Bangash, S. H; Gardiner, B. N. 1985. Dieback disease – a cause of boron deficiency in forest trees. The Pakistan Journal of Forestry, 35: 21-29.
Blanquet, J. B. 1932. Plant Sociology: the study of plant communities. Edited and translated by G.D. Fuller and H.S. Conard, New York.
Blasco, F. 1975. Mangroves in India. French Institute of Pondicherry. Trav. 14: 1-80.
Blasco, F. (1977). Outlines of Ecology, Botany and Forestry of the Mangals of the Indian sub-continent. In: Wet coastal ecosystem (ed. V.J. Chapman), Elsevier, Amsterdam 13(1), 19(2).
Chaffey, D. R; Miller, F.R; Sandom, J. H. 1985. A forest inventory of the Sundarbans, Bangladesh, Main report, Project Report No.140, 196 pp; Overseas Development Administration, London, U.K:195-196.
FAO / UNEP, 1981. Food loss Prevention in Perishable Crops. FAO Agricultural Services Bull, 43, Italy, Rome.
FAO, 1982. Management and utilization of mangroves in Asia and the Pacific.1982. FAO Environment Paper, 3.Rome:160-168.
FAO / UN, 1984. Integrated Development of the Sundarbans, Bangladesh. Fisheries Integrated Development in the Sundarbans. UNDP/FAO Project BGD/81/035, Rome.
FAO, 1993. Forest resources assessment 1990: Tropical countries. FAO Forestry Paper. 112, Rome, 98-102p.
FAO, 1994. Review of the state of world marine fisheries resources. FAO Fisheries resources. FAO Fisheries Technical Approach Paper 335:143.
FAO, 1997. State of the World’s Forests. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Rome, Italy.
FAO, 1996. Deforestation status of the World’s Forests. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Rome, Italy.
Government of Republic of Bangladesh, 1985. The draft of (1985-90) 5th five year plan, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Government of Bangladesh, (1993). Forestry Master Plan: Executive Summary. Asian Development Bank, UNDP/FAOBGD/88/025, Forest Department, Government of Bangladesh, Dhaka.31p.
Government of India, 1990. Conservation of Mangroves in India, Ministry of Environment and Forests, New Delhi, August, 1990.
Government of Maldives (1994), State of the Environment Maldives 1994, Ministry of planning Human Resources and Environment, Male, Republic of Maldives.
Government of Republic of Korea (1994). Ministry of Environment 1994, Environmental Protection in Korea to UNCED, Ministry of Environment. Seoul.
Government of Republic of Thailand, 1981. Ecological Studies for Conservation of Shore Birds in Songkhla lake, 1:559, Bangkok.
Jimenez, J. A; Cintron, and G. Lugo, A.E. (1985). Tree mortality in mangrove forests. Biotropica 17(3): 177-185.
Jimenez, C. Y. 1993. Soil compaction as a constraint to tree growth in tropical and subtropical urban habitats. Environmental Conservation. 20: 35-49.
Miranda, L. B; Castro, B. M; Kjerfve, B.1998. Circulation and mixing due to tidal forcing in Bertioga channel, S~a0 paulo, Brazil Estuaries, 21 (2): 204-214.
Naskar, K. and Mandal, R. 1999. Ecology and Biodiversity of Indian Mangroves, Publishing House, New Delhi, India, Volume, I & II, p.21.
Prain, D. 1903. Flora of the Sundarban. Records of the Botanical Survey of India. Periodical Expert Book Agency, Delhi.pp.231-370.
Rahman, M.A. 2000-2001. Diseases and disorders of tree species in the Sundarbans and their management. In: Siddiqi, N.A. and Baksa, M.W.(eds.). Mangrove research and Development, Bangladesh Forest Research institute, Chittagong: 1986-1997, 3(1 and 2):86-93.
Rahman, M.A. 2003. Mid-term Report on Top Dying of Sundri (Heritiera fomes) and Its Management in the Sundarbans Biodiversity Conservation Project, Khulna.109pp.
Thom, B.G.1982. Mangrove ecology- a geo-morphological perspective. 1982, p.3-17.
Tiner, R. W; J R. (1984). Wetlands of the United States: Current Status and Recent Trends. Newton Corner, Massachusetts: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Habitat Resources.
The Daily Star, September 14, 2013.Status of Sundarbans in Bangladesh.
UN-ESCAP, 1987. Final Report: Volume 2. Coastal environment management plan for Bangladesh. Bangkok, Thailand.
UN-ESCAP, 1988. Coastal environment management plan for Bangladesh. Bangkok, Thailand: 7-34.
UNESCO, 1997. Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, France, Paris.
WFB, 2006. The world fact book-Bangladesh. Population of Bangladesh, Wild Fact Book: 2-3.