Correlations of the Earth's Magnetic Field Intensity with Global Prevalence of Multiple Sclerosis
American Journal of Life Sciences
Volume 1, Issue 2, April 2013, Pages: 31-36
Received: Mar. 19, 2013; Published: Apr. 2, 2013
Views 3175      Downloads 233
Authors
Brett Wade, Department of Therapist Assistant Program, Okanagan College, Kelowna, B.C. V1Y 4X8 Canada
Shashi Mehta, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Clinical Laboratory Sciences, Stanley S Bergen Bldg, 65 Bergen St. 152. Newark, NJ, 07107-1709, U. S. A.
Vladimir Papitashvili, Office of Polar Programs, National Science Foundation, Arlington, VA 22230, U. S. A.
Article Tools
PDF
Follow on us
Abstract
The Earth's magnetic (geomagnetic) field protects all living things on the planet from harmful effects of ioniz-ing and electromagnetic radiation and is suggested, in this research, to be related to global multiple sclerosis (MS) preva-lence. MS is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system with an unknown aetiology. MS has a global, geograph-ic pattern of prevalence that shows high prevalence rates of the disease between 40 and 60 degrees north. Numerous ex-ogenous variables have been suggested to be factors in the expression of the disease but to date there is no single variable which best explains the pathological process. Excessive free radical formation appears to be a common factor in many of the previously correlated variables with MS. This study hypothesized that the vertical or horizontal geomagnetic field strength (or intensity) are more strongly correlated with global MS prevalence rates. Using data from available MS preva-lence studies (N=131) and online geomagnetic data for the field intensities, Pearson correlation and multiple regression analyses were performed. The results support the hypotheses with the strongest correlation being an inverse relationship between the horizontal field and global MS prevalence (r = -.607). The explanation for the inverse relationship with global MS prevalence and the horizontal component of the geomagnetic field is explained by protective effect from incoming cosmic radiation. This research suggests that living in areas of a weak horizontal field increases exposure to ionizing radia-tion and therefore increases the risk for developing MS. We propose a new scale of MS prevalence which captures the very high prevalence rates in some areas of the world.
Keywords
Multiple Sclerosis, Correlations, Environment, Geomagnetic Field, Prevalence, Radiation, Variables
To cite this article
Brett Wade, Shashi Mehta, Vladimir Papitashvili, Correlations of the Earth's Magnetic Field Intensity with Global Prevalence of Multiple Sclerosis, American Journal of Life Sciences. Vol. 1, No. 2, 2013, pp. 31-36. doi: 10.11648/j.ajls.20130102.12
References
[1]
Aplin, K. L., R. G. Harrison, et al. (2005). "Effect of the troposphere on surface neutron counter measurements." Ad-vances in Space Research 35(8): 1484-1491.
[2]
Archer, V. E. (1979). "Anencephalus, drinking water, geo-magnetism and cosmic radiation." American Journal of Epi-demiology 109(1): 88-97.
[3]
Archer, V. E., E. Stoupel, et al. (1978). Geomagnetism, Can-cer, Weather and Cosmic Radiation. [Article], Health Physics March 1978;34(3):237-247.
[4]
Barlow, J. S. (1960). "Multiple sclerosis, geomagnetic lati-tudes, and cosmic rays." Transactions of the American Neu-rological Association 85: 189-191.
[5]
Belka, C., W. Budach, et al. (2001). "Radiation induced CNS toxicity – molecular and cellular mechanisms." British Journal of Cancer 85(9): 1233-1239.
[6]
Berk, M., S. Dodd, et al. (2006). "Do ambient electromag-netic fields affect behaviour? A demonstration of the rela-tionship between geomagnetic storm activity and suicide." Bioelectromagnetics 27(2): 151-155.
[7]
Breus, T. K., K. Y. Pimenov, et al. (2002). "The biological effects of solar activity." Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy 56(Suppl. 2): 273-283.
[8]
Campbell, W. H. (2003). Introduction to Geomagnetic Fields. Cambridge, UK, University Press.
[9]
Carlyle, I. P. (1997). "Multiple sclerosis: a geographical hypothesis." Medical Hypotheses 49(6): 477-486.
[10]
Coo, H. and K. J. Aronson (2004). "A systematic review of several potential non-genetic risk factors for multiple sclero-sis." Neuroepidemiology 23(1-2): 1-12.
[11]
Dimitrova, S., I. Stoilova, et al. (2006). "Do ambient elec-tromagnetic fields affect behaviour? A demonstration of the relationship between geomagnetic storm activity and suicide." Bioelectromagnetics 27(2): 151-155.
[12]
Dimitrova, S., I. Stoilova, et al. (2004). "Effect of Local and Global Geomagnetic Activity on Human Cardiovascular Homeostasis." Archives of Environmental Health 59(2): 84-90.
[13]
Gilgun-Sherki, Y., E. Melamed, et al. (2004). "The role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis: The need for effective antioxidant therapy." Journal of Neurology 251(3): 261-268.
[14]
Green, A. and E. Waubant (2007). "Genetics and Epidemi-ology of Multiple Sclerosis " Multiple Sclerosis 13(5): 63-85.
[15]
Kantarci, O. a. and D. b. Wingerchuk (2006). Epidemiology and natural history of multiple sclerosis: new insights. [Mis-cellaneous], Current Opinion in Neurology June 2006;19(3):248-254.
[16]
Kurtzke, J. F. (1975). "A reassessment of the distribution of multiple sclerosis. Part one." Acta Neurologica Scandinavica 51(2): 110-136.
[17]
Miller, A., S. Shapiro, et al. (1998). "Treatment of multiple sclerosis with Copolymer-1 (Copaxone®): implicating me-chanisms of Th1 to Th2/Th3 immune-deviation." Journal of Neuroimmunology 92(1-2): 113-121.
[18]
Miller, D. H., O. A. Khan, et al. (2003). "A Controlled Trial of Natalizumab for Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis." New England Journal of Medicine 348(1): 15-23.
[19]
O'Connor, R. P. and M. A. Persinger (1997). "Geophysical variables and behavior: A strong association between sudden infant death syndrome and increments of global geomagnetic activity - possible support for the melatonin hypothesis." Perceptual & Motor Skills 84(2): 395-402.
[20]
Reiter, R. J., D.-X. Tan, et al. (2007). "Melatonin Defeats Neurally-Derived Free Radicals and Reduces the Associated Neuromorphological and Neurobehavioral Damage." Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 58(Suppl 6): 5-22.
[21]
Resch, J. (1995). "[Geographic distribution of multiple scle-rosis and comparison with geophysical values]." Sozial- und Praventivmedizin 40(3): 161-171.
[22]
Simpson, J. (2000). "The Cosmic Ray Nucleonic Component: The Invention and Scientific Uses of the Neutron Monitor – (Keynote Lecture)." Space Science Reviews 93(1): 11-32.
[23]
Singh, R. P., S. Sharad, et al. (2004). "Free Radicals and Oxidative Stress in Neurodegenerative Diseases: Relevance of Dietary Antioxidants." JIACM 5(3): 218-225.
[24]
Stoupel, E. (2006). "Cardiac arrhythmia and geomagnetic activity." Indian Pacing & Electrophysiology Journal 6(1): 49-53.
[25]
Stoupel, E., R. Kalediene, et al. (2005). "Suicide-Homicide Temporal Interrelationship, Links with Other Fatalities, and Environmental Physical Activity." 26(2): 85-89.
[26]
Stoupel, E., Y. Monselise, et al. (2007). "Geomagnetic field modulates artificial static magnetic field effect on arterial baroreflex and on microcirculation." International Journal of Biometeorology 51(4): 335-344.
[27]
Takeda, Y., H. Yanagie, et al. (2003). "Does the timing of surgery for breast cancer in relation to the menstrual cycle or geomagnetic activity affect prognoses of premenopausal patients?" Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy 57 (Suppl.1): 96-103.
[28]
Tan, D. x., R. J. Reiter, et al. (2002). "Chemical and Physical Properties and Potential Mechanisms: Melatonin as a Broad Spectrum Antioxidant and Free Radical Scavenger." Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry 2(2): 181-197.
[29]
Usoskin, I. G., N. Marsh, et al. (2004). Latitudinal depen-dence of low cloud amount on cosmic ray induced ionization.
[30]
Wesley, J. P. (1960). "Background Radiation as the Cause of Fatal Congenital Malformation." International Journal of Radiation Biology 2(1): 97-118.
[31]
World Magnetic Model - Geomagnetic Online Calculator. (n.d.). NOAA National Geophysical Data Center from http://ngdc.noaa.gov/geomagmodels/IGRFWMM.jsp?defaultModel=WMM
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186