Please enter verification code
Potential Adverse Effect of Ultrasound on the Electroretinogram of Retina and the Protective Role of Different Types of Antioxidants
European Journal of Biophysics
Volume 8, Issue 2, December 2020, Pages: 20-25
Received: Aug. 19, 2020; Accepted: Sep. 5, 2020; Published: Sep. 24, 2020
Views 83      Downloads 34
Ayman Ahmed, Collage of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt
Mervat Ahmed Ali, Research Institute of Ophthalmology, Giza, Egypt
Mona Mostafa Gamal, Research Institute of Ophthalmology, Giza, Egypt
Abdel Sattar Mohamed Sallam, Collage of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt
Elsayed Mahmoud Elsayed, Collage of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt
Article Tools
Follow on us
Background: Applications of ultrasound in medicine for therapeutic purposes have been an accepted and beneficial use of ultrasonic biological effects for many years but exposure to ultrasound can generate oxidative stress. Aim: The aim of the present study is to investigate the changes in the function of the retina due to ultrasound exposure and the protecting role of vitamin C and/or β-carotene by using electroretinogram (ERG). Materials and Methods: Newzealand albino rabbits of both sexes classified into five groups. Group (I) used as control group. The eyes of group (II) Insonificated with continuous ultrasound waves (1.5 W/cm2 at 2.8 MHz) for 20, 40 and 60 minutes. Group (III) was insonificated with vitamin C instillation and group (IV) insonificated after -carotene supplementation. Group (V) was insonificated after combination of the two treatments. Results: Statistically significant reduction (P˂ 0.05) in a- waves amplitude after insonification and exceeding with increase exposure time 20, 40 and 60 min was observed. The amplitudes of a-wave after treatment with topical and supplemented or both remained significantly larger compared with those exposure to US only but its latency lower than that found in insonified groups. In addition, the b-waves were found to follow the same behavior as a-wave. Conclusion: The study recommended considering oral β-carotene antioxidant in combination with vitamin C eye drops as a medical tool and personal protective in ultrasound equipment in provide safety.
Ultrasound, Vitamin C, β-carotene, Electroretinogram, Retina, Rabbit
To cite this article
Ayman Ahmed, Mervat Ahmed Ali, Mona Mostafa Gamal, Abdel Sattar Mohamed Sallam, Elsayed Mahmoud Elsayed, Potential Adverse Effect of Ultrasound on the Electroretinogram of Retina and the Protective Role of Different Types of Antioxidants, European Journal of Biophysics. Vol. 8, No. 2, 2020, pp. 20-25. doi: 10.11648/j.ejb.20200802.12
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Rwei AY, Paris JL, Wang B, et al. (2017) Ultrasound-triggered local anaesthesia. Nat Biomed Eng. 1: 644-653.
Chen Y, Shi Z, Shen Y. (2018) Eye damage due to cosmetic ultrasound treatment: a case report. BMC Ophthalmology. 18: 214.
Eggersdorfer M, Wyss A (2018) Carotenoids in human nutrition and health. Arch Biochem Biophys. Aug 15; 652: 18-26.
Li B, Rognon GT, Mattinson T, Vachali PP, Gorusupudi A, Chang FY (2018) Supplementation with macular carotenoids improves visual performance of transgenic mice. Arch Biochem Biophys. Jul 1; 649: 22-28.
Moschos MM, Dettoraki M, Tsatsos M, Kitsos G, Kalogeropoulos C. (2017) Effect of carotenoids dietary supplementation on macular function in diabetic patients. Eye and Vision. 4: 23.
Giannaccare G, Pellegrini M, Senni C, Bernabei F, Scorcia V, Cicero AFG. (2020) Clinical Applications of Astaxanthin in the Treatment of Ocular Diseases: Emerging Insights. Mar Drugs. 18 (5): 239. Published 2020 May 1.
Berman, J., et al. (2014) Nutritionally important carotenoids as consumer products. Phytochemistry Review, 14: 727-743.
Harasym, J., Oledzki, R. (2014) Effect of fruit and vegetable antioxidants on total antioxidant capacity of blood plasma. Nutrition, 30: 511-517.
McGahan, M. c. (1985) Ascorbic acid levels in aqueous and vitreous humors of the rabbit, Exp. Eye Res. 41: 291-298.
Varma, S. D., and Richards, R. D., (1988) Ascorbic acid and the eye lens, Ophthalmic Res. 20: 164-173.
Vizzarri F, Palazzo M, Bartollino S, et al. (2018) Effects of an antioxidant protective topical formulation on eye exposed to ultraviolet-irradiation: a study in rabbit animal model. Physiol Res. 67 (3): 457-464.
Bartollino, S., Palazzo, M., Semeraro, F. et al., (2020) Effects of an antioxidant protective topical formulation on retinal tissue of UV-exposed rabbits. Int Ophthalmol 40, 925-933.
Nemet AY, Assia EI, Meyerstein D, Meyerstein N, Gedanken A, Topaz M. (2007) Protective effect of free-radical scavengers on corneal endothelial damage in phacoemulsification. J Cataract Refract Surg. 33: 310-315.
Tso MO. (1989) Experiments on visual cells by nature and man: in search of treatment for photoreceptor degeneration. Friedenwald lecture. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci.30 (12): 2430-2454.
El Refaei F. M., Karam S. H., Ibrahim I. H., Sallam A. M., Ali M. (2007) Biometrical Histological Study of Rabbits’ Eye Following Exposure to Therapeutic Doses of Ultrasound. In: Magjarevic R., Nagel J. H. (eds) World Congress on Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering 2006. IFMBE Proceedings, vol 14. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
Pastor-Idoate S, Bonshek R, Irion L, et al. (2017) Ultra structural and histopathology findings after pars plana vitrectomy with a new hypersonic vitrector system. Qualitative preliminary assessment. PLoS One. 12 (4).
O'Daly B, Morris E, Gavin G, O'Byrne J, McGuinness G. (2008) High-power low-frequency ultrasound: A review of tissue dissectionand ablation in medicine and surgery. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 200 (1±3), 38±58.
Rocha F, Yumi Sugahara L, Leimann FV, et al. (2018) Nanodispersions of beta-carotene: effects on antioxidant enzymes and cytotoxic properties. Food Funct. 9 (7): 3698-3706.
Williams DM, Hägg S, Pedersen NL. Circulating antioxidants and Alzheimer disease prevention: a Mendelian randomization study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2019; 109 (1): 90-98.
Latief U, Ahmad R. β-carotene inhibits NF-κB and restrains diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatic inflammation in Wistar rats [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jul 20]. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2020; 1-10.
Ham WT, Jr, Mueller HA, Ruffolo JJ, Jr, et al: Solar retinopathy as a function of wavelength: Its significance for protective eyewear. In The Effects of Constant Light on VisuaL Processes, William TP and Baker BN, editors. New York, Plenum Press, 1980, pp. 319-346.
Hatab MR, Giller CA, Clarke GD. Evaluation of cerebral arterial flow with transcranial doppler ultrasound: theoretical development and phantom studies. Ultrasound Med Biol 1997; 23: 1025-31.
Topaz M, Motiei M, Assia E, Meyerstein D, Meyerstein N, Gedanken A: Acoustic cavitation in phacoemulsification: Chemical effects, modes of action and cavitation index. Ultrasound Med Biol 2002; 28: 775-84.
Rubowitz A, Assia EI, Rosner M, Topaz M. Antioxidant protection against corneal damage by free radicals during phacoemulsification. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2003; 44: 1866-1870.
Arash RM. High intensity focused ultrasound in ophthalmology: part one, transscleral drug delivery: part two, infrared thermography for scalable acoustic characterization, an application in the manufacture of a glaucoma treatment device. Human health and pathology. Université Claude Bernard-Lyon I, 2014. English.
Abdel-Dayem, Hisham & Hartzer, Michael & Williams, George & Ferrone, Philip. (2017). The Effect of Vitrectomy Infusion Solutions on Postoperative Electroretinography and Retina Histology. BMJ Open Ophthalmology.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186