Moisture Desorption Isotherms and Thermodynamic Properties of Sorghum-Based Complementary Foods
European Journal of Biophysics
Volume 6, Issue 2, December 2018, Pages: 23-31
Received: Aug. 23, 2018; Accepted: Sep. 13, 2018; Published: Oct. 22, 2018
Views 1009      Downloads 101
Sengev Abraham Iorfa, Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria
Ariahu Chukwuma Charles, Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria
Abu Joseph Oneh, Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria
Gernah Dickson Iorwuese, Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria
Article Tools
Follow on us
Moisture desorption and thermodynamic properties of sorghum-based complementary foods were investigated. Products were obtained from various ratios of Non-fermented sorghum (NFS), Fermented sorghum (FS), crayfish (C), Mango mesocarp (M) and fluted pumpkin leaf (P) powders. Four products, NFSMC, FSMC, NFSPC and FSPC were formulated based on 16% protein using material balance. Established procedures/methods were used for sample preparation and analyses. The equilibrium moisture contents (EMCs) generated through static gravimetric method was fitted with Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB) model by polynomial regression analysis. The moisture desorption isotherms of the samples exhibited sigmoidal shape (Type II). The enthalpy of monolayer ranged from 48.12 - 61.78 kJ/mol, multilayer ranged from 44.53 - 47.98 kJ/mol and bulk water ranged from 42.98 - 44.20kJ/mol. The isosteric heat of sorption decreased with increase in moisture content while the entropy of desorption for all the products increased as their moisture contents increased. The isosteric heat and entropy of desorption exhibited asymptotic behaviour at 14% moisture content. The isokinetic temperature ranged from 376.50 - 814.14 K while the harmonic mean temperature was 297.78 K. The enthalpy-entropy compensation theory indicated that the desorption process was enthalpy controlled.
Fermentation, Crayfish, Isosteric Heat, Entropy, Water Activity, Desorption
To cite this article
Sengev Abraham Iorfa, Ariahu Chukwuma Charles, Abu Joseph Oneh, Gernah Dickson Iorwuese, Moisture Desorption Isotherms and Thermodynamic Properties of Sorghum-Based Complementary Foods, European Journal of Biophysics. Vol. 6, No. 2, 2018, pp. 23-31. doi: 10.11648/j.ejb.20180602.11
Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
FAO, IFAD and WFP. (2015). The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2015. Meeting the 2015 international hunger targets: taking stock of uneven progress. Rome, FAO.
WHO. (2011) “Essential Nutrition Actions: Improving maternal-newborn-infant and young child health and nutrition”, May 2011.
European Commission (2017). European civil protection and humanitarian aid operations. ECHO Factsheet – Nigeria. Pp. 1 – 3.
Hua, Z., Yanhong, B., Xuewei, Z. and Ruiquian, D. (2016). Water desorption isotherms and its thermodynamic analysis of gluteneous rice flour. American Journal of Food Technology, 11: 115 – 124.
Sengev, A. I., Ariahu, C. C., Abu, J. O. Gernah, D. I. (2016). Moisture adsorption and thermodynamic properties of sorghum-based complementary foods. International Journal of Food Engineering and Technology, 2(1): 26 - 33.
Biswal, S., Mohapatra, M., Panda, M. K. and Dash, S. K. (2017). Moisture desorption isotherms of fresh Jamun (Syzygium cumini) fruit. Indian Journal of Agricultural Research, 51 (3): 267 – 271.
Ariahu, C. C., Ukpabi, U. and Mbajunwa, K. O. (1999). Producrion of African breadfruit (Treculia africana) and soybean (Glycine max) seed based food formulations, 1: Effect of germination and fermentation on nutritional and organoleptic quality. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 54: 193 – 206.
PAG (1971). Guidelines on protein rich mixtures for use in weaning foods. Protein Advisory Group, United Nations. pp. 45-76.
Chiba, L. I. (2009). Animal nutrition handbook. Section 18: Diet formulation and common feed ingredients. pp. 481– 531.
Ariahu, C. C., Kaze, S. A., and Achem, C. D. (2006). Moisture sorption characteristics of tropical fresh water crayfish (Procambarus clarkii). Journal of Food Engineering, 75: 355 - 363.
Ruegg, M. (1980). Calculation of the activity of water in sulfuric acids solution at various temperatures. Lebensmittel-wiss and Technologie, 13: 22-24.
Gal, S. (1988). The need for practical application of sorption data. In: Physical properties of food.Jewitt, R., Escher, F., Hallstrem, B., Mefffert, H. F., Spiess, W. E. L. and Vos, G. (eds). London, Applied Science Publishers, pp. 13 – 25.
Johnson, P. N. T. (1998). Applicability of the BET and GAB models to the moisture adsorption isotherms data of some Ghanaian food flours. Ghanaian Journal of Agricultural Science, 31: 107 – 112.
Wang, N., and Brennan, J. G. (1991). Moisture sorption isotherms characteristics of potatoes at four temperatures. Journal of Food Engineering, 14: 269 - 282.
Krug, R. R., Hunter, W. G. and Grieger, R. A. (1976). Enthalpy-entropy compensation .2. Separation of the chemical from the statistical effect. Journal of Physical Chemistry, 80: 2335 - 2342.
Igbabul, B. D., Ariahu, C. C. and Umeh, E. U. (2013). Moisture adsorption isotherms of African arrowroot lily (Tacca involucrata) tuber mash as influenced by blanching and natural fermentation. Journal of Food Research, 2(3): 79 – 92.
Al-Mahasneh, M. Alkoaik, F., Khalil, A., Fulleros, R. and El-Waziry, A. (2014). Effect of temperature on moisture sorption isotherms and monolayer moisture content of bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon). Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science, 20(6):1289 - 1294.
Bahareh, S., Quan, V. V., Suwimol C., John, B. G., Christopher, J. S. and Costas, E. S. (2015). Water sorption isotherm of pea starch edible films and prediction models. Foods, 5(1): 1 – 18.
Tunc, S. and Duman, O. (2007). Thermodynamic properties and moisture sorption isotherms of cottonseed protein isolate and different forms of cottonseed samples. Journal of Food Engineering, 81: 133 – 143.
Ramesh, M. N. (2003). Moisture transfer properties of cooked rice during drying. Lebensmittel-wiss and Technologie, 36(2): 245 - 255.
Zuo, L., Rhim, J. and Lee, J. H. (2015). Moisture sorption and thermodynamic properties of vacuum-dried Capsosiphon fulvescens Powder. Preventive Nutrition Food Science, 20(3):215-220.
Chowdhury, T. and Das, M. (2012). Moisture sorption isotherm and isosteric heat of sorption of edible films made from blends of starch, amylose and methyl cellulose, International Food Research Journal, 19(4): 1669-1678.
Rahman, M. S. and Al-Belushi, R. H. (2006). Dynamic isopiestic method (DIM): measuring Moisture sorption isotherm of freeze-dried garlic powder and other potential uses of DIM. International Journal of Food Properties, 9: 421–437.
Kajihausa, O. E., Sobukola, O. P., Idowu, M. A. and Awonorin, S. O. (2010). Nutrient contents and thermal degradation of vitamins in organically grown fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) leaves, International Food Research Journal, 17: 795-807.
Ubwa, S. T., M. O. Ishu, M. O., Offem, J. O., Tyohemba, R. L. and Igbum, G. O. (2014). Proximate composition and some physical attributes of three mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruit varieties. International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research, 4(2): 21 – 29.
Kurozawa, L. E., de-Oliveira, R. A. Hubinger, M. D. and Park, K. J. (2015). Water desorption thermodynamic properties of Papaya. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 39(6): 2412 -2420.
Chen, C. (2006). Obtaining the isosteric sorption heat directly by sorption isotherm equations. Journal of Food Engineering, 74: 178–185.
Oliveira, E. G., Rosa, G. S., Moraes, M. A. and L. Pinto, L. A. A. (2009). Moisture sorption characteristics of microalgae Spirulina platensis. Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering, 26(1): 189 – 197.
Neila, B., Nourhene, B. and Nabil, K. (2008). Moisture desorption-adsorption isotherms and isosteric heats of sorption of Tunisian olive leaves (Olea europaea L.). Industrial Crops and Products, 28: 162–176.
McMinn, W. A. M. and Magee, T. R. A. (2003). Thermodynamic properties of moisture sorption of potato. Journal of Food Engineering, 60: 157–165.
Ayala-Aponte, A. A. (2016). Thermodynamic properties of moisture sorption in cassava flour. DYNA., 83(197): 139-145.
Santhi, C., Arnold, J. G., Williams, J. R., Dugas, W. A., Srinivasan, R. and Hauck. L. M. (2001). Validation of the SWAT model on a large river basin with point and nonpoint sources. Journal ofAmerican Water Resources Association, 37(5): 1169-1188.
Van-Liew, M. W., Arnold, J. G. and Garbrecht, J. D. (2003). Hydrologic simulation on agricultural watersheds: Choosing between two models. Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers, 46(6): 1539-1551.
Oloyo, R. A. (2001) Fundamentals of research methodology for social and applied sciences, Ilaro, Nigeria, ROA Educational Press, 286pp.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186