Influence of Whole Body X-irradiation on the Liver and Possible Protective Effect by the Compatible Solute Ectoine in a Mouse Model
European Journal of Biophysics
Volume 4, Issue 3, June 2016, Pages: 16-21
Received: Jun. 14, 2016;
Accepted: Jun. 27, 2016;
Published: Jul. 13, 2016
Views 3484 Downloads 182
Sarhan D. A., Department of Pharmacology, Medical Research Institute, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt
Shehata R. R., Department of Pharmacology, Medical Research Institute, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt
Kandil Y. I., Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt
Kotb M. A., Department of Medical Biophysics, Medical Research Institute, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt
El-Bassiouni E. A., Department of Pharmacology, Medical Research Institute, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt
Exposure of mammals to ionizing radiation leads to the development of a complex dose-dependent series of physiological and pathological changes. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of whole body x-irradiation of male mice with a single w dose of 6 Gy on the levels of some cytokines and parameters of oxidative stress, after one and seven days, in the liver. The possible protective effect of the compatible solute ectoine, which is known to reduce cell stress effects on the molecular level, was evaluated. The x-irradiated mice showed elevated interleukins in the liver. The levels of both the pro-inflammatory (IL-1β and IL-6) and the anti-inflammatory (IL-10) interleukins reached several times the control value with quantitative differences. The disturbance by low-dose x-irradiation also affected PGE2. Malondialdehyde, used as indication of oxidative stress, was elevated in the livers of x-irradiated mice. Although, there were no statistically significant differences in the results of total glutathione among the irradiated mice as compared to control values, there were differences among the values of the reduced and oxidized forms. The calculated redox potentials, showed some variations in the different groups, but were all within the values indicating that the cells are in the proliferative phase and far from the apoptotic phase. Treatment with ectoine modulated all the tested biochemical effects induced by x-irradiation in the liver. All the tested parameters had a tendency to go back to near control values.
Sarhan D. A.,
Shehata R. R.,
Kandil Y. I.,
Kotb M. A.,
El-Bassiouni E. A.,
Influence of Whole Body X-irradiation on the Liver and Possible Protective Effect by the Compatible Solute Ectoine in a Mouse Model, European Journal of Biophysics.
Vol. 4, No. 3,
2016, pp. 16-21.
Spitz DR, Azzam EI, Li JJ, Glus D. Metabolic oxidation/reduction reactions and cellular responses to ionizing radiation: a unifying concept in stress response biology. Cancer Metastasis Rev 2004; 23: 311-22.
Chen CY, Huang YL, Lin TH. Association between oxidative stress and cytokine production in nickel-treated rats. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1998; 356: 127-132.
Buommino E, Schiraldi C, Baroni A, Paoletti I, Lamberti M, De Rosa M, Tufano MA. Ectoine from halophilic microorganisms induces the expression of hsp 70 and hsp 70 B in human keratinocytes modulating the proinflammatory response. Cell Stren Chaperons 2005; 10: 197-203.
Harishchandra RK, Wulff S, Lentzen G, Neuhaus T, Calla HJ. The effect of compatible solute Ectoine on the structural organization of lipid monolayer and bilayer membranes. Biophys Chem 2010; 150: 37-46.
Buenger J, Driller H. Ectoin: an effective natural substance to prevent UVA-induced premature photoaging. Skin Pharmacol Physio 2004; l 17: 232-7.
Coia LR, Moylan DJ. Introduction to clinical radiation oncology. 3rd ed, Medical Physics Pub, Madison, Wisconsin 1988.
Abdel-Aziz H, Wadie W, Abdallah DM, Lenzen G, Khayyal MT. Novel effects of Ectoine, a bacteria-derived natural tetrahydro pyremidine, in experimental colitis. Phytomed 2013; 20: 585-9.
Rosa MS, Pinto AM. Cytokines. In: Burtis CA, Ashwood ER, Bruns DE (eds). Tietz textbook of clinical chemistry and molecular diagnostics. 4thed. St Louis: Elsevier Saunders; 2006. 645–744.
Burtis CA, Ashwood ER. Lipids, lipoproteins, apolipoproteins and others cardiovascular risk factors, prostaglandins. In: Bruns DE (eds). Tietz textbook of clinical chemistry and molecular diagnostics. 6thed. St Louis: Elsevier Saunders; 2008. 409–11.
Ohkawa H, Ohishi N, Yagi K. Assay for lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Anal Biochem 1979; 95: 351–8.
Griffith OW. Determination of glutathione and glutathione disulfide using glutathione reductase and 2-vinyl pyridine. Anal Biochem 1980; 106: 207-12.
Schaffer FQ, Buettner GR. Redox environment of the cell as viewed through the redox state of glutathione disulfide/glutathione couple. Free Radic Biol Med 2001; 30: 1191-1212.
Song JY, Han SK, Bae KG, Lim DS, Son SJ, Jung IS, Yi SY, Yun YS. Radioprotective effects of ginsan, an immunomodulator. Radiat Res 2003; 59 (6): 768-74.
Hogatt J, Singh P, Stilger KN, Plett PA, Sampson CH, Chua HL, Orschell CM, Pelus LM. Recovery from hematopoietic injury by modulating prostaglandin E2 signaling post-irradiation. Blood Cells Mol Dis 2013; 50: 147-53.
Pratheeshkumar P, Kuttan G. Protective role of Vernonia cinerea L. against gamma radiation-induced immunosupressio and oxidative stress in mice. Hum Exp Toxicol 2011; 30: 1022–38.
Devasagayam TPA. Protective effect of an aminothiazole compound against γ-radiation induced oxidative damage. Free Radic Res 2011; 45: 1342–53.
Neta R., Modulation with cytokines of radiation injury: suggested mechanism of action. Environ Health Perspect. 1997; 105: 1463-1465.
Mathey E, Pollard J, Armati P. In situ hybridization for cytokines in human tissue biopsies. Methods Mol Biol 2003; 204: 57–66.
McIntosh JK, Jablons DM, Mule JJ, Nordan RP, Rudikoff S, Lotze MT, Rosenberg SA. In vivo induction of IL-6 by administration of exogenous cytokines and detection of de novo serum levels of IL-6 in tumor-bearing mice. J Immunol 1989; 143: 162-7.
Neta R, Perlstein R, Vogel SN, Ledney GD, Abrams J. Role of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in protection from lethal irradiation and in endocrine response to IL-1 and tumor necrosis factor. J Exp Med 1992; 175: 689-94.
O’Neill LAJ. Toward an understanding of the signal transduction pathways for interleukin-1. Biochem Biophys Acta 1995; 1266: 31-44.
Dinarello CA, Interleukin-1β, a proinflammatory cytokine. Eur Cytokine Netw 2000; 11 (3): 483-6.
Michalowski AS. On radiation damage to be normal tissues and its treatment. II. Anti-inflammatory drugs. Acta Oncologica 1994; 33 (2): 139-57.
Glocker EO, Kotlart D, Klein C, Shah N, Grimmbacher B. IL-10 and IL-10 receptor defects in humans. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2011; 1246: 102-7.
Rubin P, Johnson CJ, McDonald S, Finkelstein JN. A perpetual cascade of cytokines postirradiation leads to pulmonary fibrosis. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1995; 33: 99-109.
Eisen V, Walker DI. Effect of ionizing radiation on prostaglandin-like activity in tissues. Br J Pharmacol 1976; 57: 527-32.
Nirra H, Otzuka T, Izuhara K, Yamaoka K, Ohshima K, Tanabe T, Hara S, Nemoto Y, Tanaka Y, Nakashima H, Niho Y. Regulation by interleukin-10 and interleukin-4 of cyclooxygenase expression in human neutrophils. Blood 1997; 89: 1621-8.
Henze B, Brune K. Cyclooxygenase-2: 10 years later. J Pharmacol Exper Therap 2002; 300 (2): 367-75.
Thannickal VJ, Fanburg BL. Reactive oxygen species in cell signaling. Am J Phjysiol, Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2000; 279: L 1005- 28.
Anno GH, Baum SJ, Withers MR, Young RW. Symptomatology of acute radiation effect in humans after exposure to doses 0.5-30 Gy. Health Phys 1989; 56: 821-38.
Robinson CK, Webb K, Kaur A, Jaruga P, Dizaroglu M, Baliga NS Place A, Diruggiero J. A major role for nonenzymatic antioxidant processes in radioresistance of Halobacterium salinarum. J Bacteriol 2011; 193: 1653-62.
Zhao W, Robbins ME. Inflammation and chronic oxidative stress in radiation-induced late normal tissue injury: therapeutic implications. Curr Med Chem 2009; 16: 130-43.
Bump EA, Brown JM. Role of glutathione in the radiation response of mammalian cells in vitro and in vivo. Pharmacol Ther 1990; 47: 117–36.
Adaramoye OA, Popoola BO, Farombi EO. Effects of Xylopia aethiopica (Ammonaceae) fruit methanol extract on γ-radiation-induced oxidative stress in brain of adult male Wistar rats. Acta Biol Hung 2010; 61: 250–61.