Physicochemical and Bacteriological Analysis of Sludge and Water contaminated by Oil Spillage in Some Coastal Communities of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria
Advances in Applied Sciences
Volume 2, Issue 5, October 2017, Pages: 64-68
Received: Oct. 4, 2016;
Accepted: Nov. 2, 2016;
Published: Sep. 26, 2017
Views 1880 Downloads 120
Mercy Uwem Useh, Chemistry Advanced Research Centre, Sheda Science and Technology Complex, Kwali, Abuja, Nigeria
Pius Ikokoh, Chemistry Advanced Research Centre, Sheda Science and Technology Complex, Kwali, Abuja, Nigeria
Mary Sunday Dauda, Chemistry Department, University of Abuja, Abuja, Nigeria
Ogechukwu Philomena Onwuazor, Biotechnology Advanced Research Centre, Sheda Science and Technology Complex, Kwali, Abuja, Nigeria
Danlami Uzama, Chemistry Advanced Research Centre, Sheda Science and Technology Complex, Kwali, Abuja, Nigeria
Crude oil contaminated sludge and water samples from four coastal communities (Ibeno, Onna, EsitEket and Eket) in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria were analyzed to investigate the bacterial load and physicochemical parameters using standard pour plate method and standard analytical methods respectively. The pH values of both (sludge and water) samples as determined ranged from 5.14 – 5.22 and 4.23 – 6.15 respectively which indicated that the samples are acidic in nature. Other physicochemical parameters determined were: temperature, electrical conductivity, moisture content, organic matter, total alkalinity, TDS, TSS, total hardness, DO, BOD, sulphate, chloride, oil and grease. The bacteriological analysis of the water and sludge samples showed mean total bacterial count of 3.57x104 and 1.77x103 cfu/ml respectively. The mean coliform counts of water and sludge samples were 1.5x102 and 8.4x101 cfu/100ml respectively. The result of these analyses showed that most of these parameters did not meet the WHO recommended standards. Hence, the environment should beremediated with immediate effect to avoid further disaster.
Mercy Uwem Useh,
Mary Sunday Dauda,
Ogechukwu Philomena Onwuazor,
Physicochemical and Bacteriological Analysis of Sludge and Water contaminated by Oil Spillage in Some Coastal Communities of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, Advances in Applied Sciences.
Vol. 2, No. 5,
2017, pp. 64-68.
Nwilo, P. C., Badejo, O. T., 2005. Impacts and Management of Oil spill Pollution along the Nigerian coastal area.
Benka-Cooker, M. O. and J. A. Ekundayo, (1995). Effects of oil spill on soil physiochemical properties of a spill site in the Niger Delta Nigeria. Environ. Monitoring Assessment, 36: 93-109.
Kayode, J., Oyedeji, A. A., Olowoyo, O., (2010). Evaluation of the Effect of Pollution with Spent Lubricating oil on the Physical and Chemical Properties of Soil. Pacific Journal of Science and Technology 10(1), 387-391.
Edema, N. E. (2009). Total salinity of the water soluble fraction (WSF) of Ogini well-head crude oil before and after exposure to Azolla Africana Devs. Nigerian Journal of Botany. 22(2):239-246.
Pepper, L. L., Gerbal, C. P., Brusseau, M. L., (1996). Pollution Science, Academic Press.
Inoni O. E, Omotor D. G. and Adun F. N. (2006). The effect of oil spillage on crop yield and farm income in Nigeria. J. Central Eur. Agric. 7(1):41-49.
Nelson, D. W. and Sommers, L. E.(1996). Methods of Soil Analysis. 2nd ed. Vol. 2, London: MadisonInc.
APHA (American Public Health Association) (2003) Standard Methods for the Examinations of Water and Wastewater, 19th edition, Washington DC.
Franco, I., M. Contin, G. Bragato and M. De Nobili, (2004). Microbiological resilience of soils contaminated with crude oil. Geoderma, 121:17-30.
Andrade, M. L. E. F. Covelo, F. A. Vega and P. Marcet, (2004). Effect of the prestige oil spill on salt marshy soils on the coast of Galicia North western Spain. J. Environ. Qual., 33: 2103-2110.
Ogboghodo, I. A., E. K. Iruaga, I. O. Osemwota and J. U. Chokor, (2004). Anassessment of the effects of crude oil pollution on soil properties, using two crude types-Forcados light and escravos light. J. Environ. Monitoring Assessment, 96:143-152.
Dane, J. H, Topp, G. C. (2012). Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 4. Physical Methods. SSSA, Inc., Madison, WI, pp. 241-254.
Odu, C. T., (1997). Microbiology of soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons Natural rehabilitation and reclamation of soil affected. Inst. Petroleum@Technol., Publ. 1, 77-105.
Marinescu, M., Toti, M., Tanase, V., Plopeanu, G., Calciu, I., Marinescu, M., (2001). The effects of crude oil pollution on physical and chemical characteristics of soil. Resaerch Journal of Agricultural Science, 43(3), 125-129.
Trivedy, R. K. and Goel P. K. (2008): Chemical and biological methods for water pollution studies, Environmental Publication, Karad, Maharashtra.
WHO (World Health Organization). WHO International Standards for Drinking Water, (1998), 10-15.
Bennett, P. C., Siegel, D. I., Baedecker, M. J., and Hult, M. F., (1993), Crude oil in a shallow aquifer, 1—Aquifer characterization and hydrogeochemical controls on inorganic solutes: Applied Geochemistry, v. 8, p. 529-549.
Dillard, L. A., Essaid, H. I., and Herkelrath, W. N., (1997), Multi phase flow modeling of a crude-oil spill site with a bimodal permeability distribution: Water Resources Research, v. 33, p. 1617-1632.
Eganhouse, R. P., Baedecker, M. J., Cozzarelli, I. M., Aiken, G. R., Thorn, K. A., and Dorsey, T. F., (1993), Crude oil in a shallow sand and gravel aquifer, II—Organic geochemistry: Applied Geochemistry, v. 8, p. 551-567.
Essaid, H. I., Bekins, B. A., Godsy, E. M., Warren, E., Baedecker, M. J., and Cozzarelli, I. M., (1995), Simulation of aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation processes at a crude oil spill site: Water Resources Research, v. 31, p. 3309-3327.
Landon, M. K., and Hult, M. F., (1991), Evolution of physical properties and composition of a crude oil spill, in Mallard, G. E., and Aronson, D. A., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program, Monterey, California, March 11-15, 1991: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 91-4034, p. 641-645.
Smith, S. E., and Hult, M. F., (1993), Hydrogeologic data collected from a crude oil spill site near Bemidji, Minnesota, 1983-91.