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Ionospheric HF Radio Propagation Including Problems and Computer Assignments
Carlo Scotto
Science Publishing Group
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Table of Contents
CHAPTER 1 Fundamentals of Ionospheric Plasma Physics
1.1 Characteristics of ionospheric plasma
1.2 The temperature of the ionosphere
1.3 Plasma frequency
1.4 Debye length
1.5 Ordinary dielectrics and macroscopic theory
1.6 Electric susceptivity with no magnetic field
1.7 Electromagnetic waves in an ordinary dielectric
1.8 Constitutive equations for a plasma with a magnetic field
1.9 Constitutive equations for a plasma with collisions between neutral molecules and electrons in a constant magnetic field
1.10 Condition of cold plasma
Bibliography for Chapter 1
CHAPTER 2 Refraction index of radio waves in the ionosphere
2.1 Assumptions of the magneto-ionic theory
2.2 The relation of polarization
Bibliography for Chapter 2
CHAPTER 3 Consequences of the Appleton-Hartree equation
3.1 Discussion of the Appleton-Hartree equation
3.2 Interpretation of the complex refraction index
3.3 Conditions for reflection in the absence of collisions
3.4 The zeros of the Appleton-Hartree equation
Bibliography for Chapter 3
CHAPTER 4 Group refraction index
4.1 The group refraction index with a magnetic field, without collisions
4.2 Ionograms
4.3 A preliminary explanation of the z ray
4.4 The z ray according to the coupling theory between ordinary ray and extraordinary ray
4.5 The theory of the z ray
4.6 The effect of collisions on the group refraction index: an explanation for the observation of a z ray at polar latitudes
Bibliography for Chapter 4
CHAPTER 5 Reflection conditions in the presence of collisions
5.1 Conditions for reflection in the presence of collisions
5.2 Features of the refraction index with collisions in the absence of a magnetic field
5.3 Propagation of the ordinary component in quasi transversal approximation
5.4 Quasi longitudinal propagation
5.5 Zones of validity of QT and QL approximations
5.5.1 QT approximation
5.5.2 QL approximation
5.6 Summary and discussion of the results achieved
Bibliography for Chapter 5
CHAPTER 6 The polarization of radio waves
6.1 Possible states of polarization of a plane electromagnetic wave
6.2 Properties of the polarization equation
6.3 Properties of the equation of polarization for X = 0
Bibliography for Chapter 6
CHAPTER 7 Oblique ionospheric propagation
7.1 The eikonal equation
7.2 Equation of the ray
7.3 Changes in amplitude
7.4 The secant law
7.5 Breit and Tuve's Theorem
7.6 Martyn’s Theorem
7.7 The transmission curves method
7.8 Schematic description of a radio link via the ionosphere
7.9 Ionospheric radio links and ray tracing
Bibliography for Chapter 7
CHAPTER 8 Ionospheric absorption
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Absorption in absence of a magnetic field
8.3 Ionospheric absorption in the presence of a magnetic field
8.3.1 Non-deviative absorption
8.3.2 Deviative absorption
8.4 Summary
Bibliography for Chapter 8
APPENDIX 1: Evanescent waves
APPENDIX 2: Phase and group velocities
APPENDIX 3: Damping
Carlo Scotto was born in Orbetello (Italy) in 1965. He holds a physics degree from the University of Rome (La Sapienza) and a PhD in Polar Science from the University of Siena. He attended a three-year Scholarship for Specialization in Geophysical Disciplines and is currently a senior researcher at INGV, the Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Vulcanology. He has taken part in two Antarctic campaigns and completed a research appointment at the University of Western Ontario (Canada) during the academic year 2009-2010. Other activities include studies on atmospheric gravity waves, sporadic E layer, irregularities in the F2 region, probability of occurrence of the F1 layer, and contributions to the International Reference Ionosphere model. He introduced a method for the inversion of ionogram traces and is the main author of the Autoscala software for the automatic interpretation of ionograms. To date he has published over 40 papers in peer-reviewed journals.
The book’s purpose is to introduce HF ionospheric radio propagation through the solution of problems and computer assignments. These serve primarily to check and deepen understanding of the theoretical aspects. Secondly, they are used to introduce readers to new subjects in a natural way.

The main objective is to bring readers with a background equivalent to a M.Sc. degree in physics or engineering up to an operative level in the field of ionospheric radio propagation research.
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